# Production function notes. Production function 2022-10-24

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A production function is a mathematical representation of the relationship between the inputs used in the production process and the output produced. It specifies the maximum output that can be produced for a given set of inputs. The inputs used in the production process are known as factors of production and can include labor, capital, land, and materials. The output produced is typically measured in terms of the quantity of goods or services produced.

There are several types of production functions, including the short run production function and the long run production function. The short run production function represents the relationship between the inputs used in the production process and the output produced, taking some inputs as fixed and others as variable. The long run production function represents the relationship between the inputs used in the production process and the output produced, taking all inputs as variable.

One important concept in production function analysis is the law of diminishing returns. This states that as more units of a variable input are added to a fixed amount of other inputs, the marginal product of the variable input will eventually decline. This occurs because the fixed inputs are being used more efficiently as the variable input increases, and at some point, the additional units of the variable input will not be used as efficiently as the previous units.

Another important concept in production function analysis is the concept of returns to scale. This refers to the relationship between the percentage change in the inputs used in the production process and the percentage change in the output produced. If the percentage change in output is greater than the percentage change in inputs, then there are increasing returns to scale. If the percentage change in output is equal to the percentage change in inputs, then there are constant returns to scale. If the percentage change in output is less than the percentage change in inputs, then there are decreasing returns to scale.

In conclusion, the production function is a useful tool for understanding the relationship between inputs and output in the production process. It allows firms to analyze the efficiency of their production process and make decisions about how to allocate resources in order to maximize output. Understanding the concepts of diminishing returns and returns to scale is also important in production function analysis, as they can help firms to identify opportunities for improving efficiency and increasing output.

## Production

What are Returns to a Factor? The law of returns to a factor explains such a production function. They do not vary directly with the output. The total products produced by a firm show its productivity and can be used to determine the strength of production or the production function. Long-Run Production Function In the case of the long-run production function, the variables are changed proportionally. On the other hand, we can also keep all variables changeable. Explicit Cost: The actual money spent by a firm on the purchase and hiring of factor inputs for production is referred to as explicit cost. There are 3 important reasons or causes for the operation of increasing returns— a Proper utilization of the fixed factor i In the initial stage of production the units of variable input i.

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## Production Function: Short Run and Long Run Production Functions

At point P, the curvature of the TPP curve changes. But what happens to the total product curve when a fixed input changes. However, in reality, when the number of workers increases by one, the number of apples produced will increase by less than 0. Average cost is the per-unit cost of production of a commodity and can be calculated by adding the average fixed cost and average variable. Article Writing, Research Paper, Online Competitions, Quiz Competition, Moot Court Competition, Internship Experience, Sponsorship, Advertisement, etc.

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## Production Function

Therefore the best stage of production is stage II. It is calculated by dividing the total Product by the units of variable factor. This includes not just land, but anything that comes from the land. Output Output means production. This type of analysis is carried on through production function. The sum of the ex­ponents in the Cobb-Douglas production function shows the degree of returns to scale in production.

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## Production Function: Definition & Formula

Again, since most of these methods were discussed at length in connec­tion with demand forecasting, the reader will easily be able to see how to adopt them to the task of pre­dicting changes in the price level. Estimation of Production Function: The production function is a technical relation showing how inputs are transformed into outputs. There are mainly four factors of and they are land, labour, capital and organization which are used to produce goods and services. These revision notes of Class 12 Microeconomics Chapter 3 are also available in PDF format that can be downloaded by the students. For example, plant and machinery, building, land etc. In the production function, variation in total output by varying the quantities of all inputs is possible only in the long run whereas the variation in total output by varying the quantity of single input may be possible even in the short run.

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## Production and Costs Class 12 Notes CBSE Micro Economics Chapter 3 [PDF]

First of all, they can either be exogenous or endogenous in character. What is meant by returns to a factor? So, it is possible to calculate MC in Table 15. Total cost: It refers to the total amount of money spent by a company on producing a given quantity of a commodity. On the other hand, when the economic model at hand explains the mechanism by which technological progress is generated, we have the case of endogenous techno­logical progress. Therefore production can be raised only by increasing variable factors, but till the extent of the capacity of the fixed factors.

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## 3 Types Of Production Functions: Cobb Douglas, Leontief, CES

Production functions are dependent upon technology. If the costs of the variable factor were as­sumed to increase due to output expansion, the stage of variable diminishing returns to the input would be reached quickly. Production function table As mentioned before, the production function shows the relationship between the quantities of inputs and outputs of a company. Therefore, the cooperation of the fixed factor is not available to the same extent. Average Variable Costs : Average variable cost is total variable cost TVC divided by the level of output Q. Leontief Production Function Leontief production function, evolved by W. Constant Return to a factor This situation occurs between the situations of increasing returns to a factor and decreasing returns to a factor.

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## Concept of Production Function Class 11 Economics Notes

As all the variables change, the ultimate outcome of the production function may have an incremental or detrimental effect. We may note, at the outset, that in this func­tional form, both inputs are necessary to produce any output at all. Such a smooth neo-classical function would relate inputs purchased to expected output. This reveals that in the production process none of the factors can be ignored and in some cases ignorance to even slightest extent is not possible if the factors are perfectly specific. Suppose the manufacturer uses 20 units of spares and 2 hours of time a day to produce 1 car in a week.

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## What is Production Function?

In a more quantitative manner, one can con­sider the question of returns to scale by considering a new measure called the function coefficient. This is not a particularly difficult task. Make presentations in class. This point can be verified by looking at column 6 of the above Table. This is an important concept for the chapter and has been explained clearly in the notes with the help of graphs and equations.

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## Production function

When it is embodied in new machines only, i. Fixed And Variable Factors Fixed factors— Fixed factors are those the application of which does not change with the change in the output and which can not be changed during short run. This is because of the behaviour of total variable cost which initially in­creases less than proportionately, then more or less proportionately and finally more than proportion­ately as in Fig. A major problem with the CES production func­tion is that unlike the Cobb-Douglas, it is not possi­ble to transform it into a linear-in-parameters form by operations such as taking logarithms. Shifting the production function: An increase in productivity When the index of productivity increases from A 0 to A 1, holding everything else fixed, the production function shifts up. Basi­cally, this is a measure of elasticity since it reflects the percentage change in output in response to a given percentage change in the level of usage of both the inputs. Marginal product become zero or even negative.

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## PRODUCTION FUNCTION NOTES

They do not vary directly with the output. This is bound to affect total production adversely. Shifting Curves Moving along the production function As N increases from N 0 to N 1 output increases from Y 0 to Y 1 as we move along the production function. Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product with the help of schedule and diagram are as follows: Explanation of a Curves 1. In such a case, the contribution of additional labour to production is bound to be negative. As more of a variable factor is employed, AP increases fast, then it falls and the point where AP is at maximum is referred to as the point of diminishing average productivity. What is the Production Function? There may be a strike in the factory.

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