Gapdh gene in plants. GAPDH PCR Module 2022-11-09

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GAPDH, or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is a gene that is found in plants as well as in animals and other organisms. This enzyme plays a critical role in a number of metabolic processes, including glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose to produce energy.

In plants, GAPDH is found in the cytoplasm and is involved in the production of ATP, the primary source of energy for the cell. GAPDH is also involved in the synthesis of other molecules, including nucleotides and amino acids.

GAPDH is highly conserved across different species, meaning that it has a similar structure and function in a wide range of organisms. This is likely due to the importance of the enzyme in energy production, as well as its role in other metabolic pathways.

Plant GAPDH has been the subject of a number of studies due to its potential as a target for improving plant growth and productivity. For example, research has shown that increasing the expression of GAPDH can improve the growth and yield of crops such as rice and corn.

In addition to its role in metabolism, GAPDH has also been implicated in other processes in plants, including stress responses and programmed cell death. For example, GAPDH has been shown to be involved in the response to drought stress in plants, and in the regulation of programmed cell death during the development of plants.

Overall, GAPDH is a vital gene in plants that plays a key role in energy production and other metabolic processes. Further research on GAPDH and its function in plants could lead to important discoveries and potential applications in agriculture and plant biology.

Genome

gapdh gene in plants

Students may also amplify genomic DNA from two other plants, and additional genomic DNA may be extracted using the nucleic acid extraction module. The NAD +, the sulfate ions occupying the Ps and Pi sites and the catalytic residues Cys-154 and His-181 are represented as ball-and-sticks. Electrophoresis data suggested continuing this lab with Arabidopsis because there were insignificant amounts of Spinacea yielded. In this sense, GAPDH is considered as a moonlighting protein. TIF GAPDH knockouts and recombinant proteins. Individual KO lines exhibited enhanced disease resistance to virulent and avirulent Pst DC3000, accelerated cell death in response to avirulent Pst DC3000, enhanced basal expression of the defense marker gene PR1, and enhanced intracellular ROS accumulation. B Denitrosylation mechanism of plant GAPC.

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Cytosolic GAPDH as a redox

gapdh gene in plants

Your product is now available from Integrated DNA Technologies. METHODS Materials and methods were followed as described by Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. Furthermore, interaction of GapC with the thioredoxin Trx- h3 as a candidate to revert the redox-modifications, occurred in the nucleus of oxidized protoplasts. Data from a minimum of 5 independent runs were normalized to Col-0 and combined for statistical analyses. Treatment with flg22 induces an increase in size of GAPC1-GFP labeled vesicles and enhances GAPC1-GFP nuclear localization. Denaturing occurred at 95┬░C, annealing occurred at 52┬░C and extension occurred at 72┬░C.

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Beyond Glycolysis: GAPDHs Are Multi

gapdh gene in plants

Physiologically, the most relevant ones are disulfide bond formation S-S, intra- or inter-molecular , glutathionylation S-SG , S-nitrosylation S-NO and oxidation to sulfenic acid S-OH. However, alternative functions of GAPC, signaling functions in particular, may well involve only a small fraction of the large pool of GAPC in plant cells. The negative control should not yield any visible DNA, the positive control contains Arabidopsis DNA. Accumulation of cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase RNA under biological stress conditions and elicitor treatments in potato. The EST sequences were assembled into contigs using CodonCode Aligner with high stringency parameters of minimum percent identity of 99%, minimum overlap length of 50 and default parameters for the rest. For cation-exchange chromatography, the sample was loaded onto a pre-equilibrated Fractogel® EMD SE Hicap M Merck, Darmstadt, Germany cation-exchange column connected to an ÄKTAprime plus chromatography system GE Healthcare, Munich, Germany. Phenotypes observed in the KOs such as the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of basal autophagy support GAPDH mediated regulation of metabolic checkpoints.

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Glyceraldehyde 3

gapdh gene in plants

To quantify the nuclear localization of GapC1 and GapC2 fluorescent fusions, the basic leucine zipper protein bZIP63 was used as a nuclear marker protein. All KO lines exhibited an accelerated HR and enhanced electrolyte leakage compared to the wild-type Col-0 control, indicating a more rapid cell death progression in the KO lines Pst DC3000 expressing AvrRpt2 Pst DC3000, the magnitude of responses varied between individual lines. A Oxidation and glutathionylation of plant GAPC. Purifying DNA is an important part of isolating the targeted DNA. B Catalytic site representation of Streptococcus mutans non-phosphorylating GAPDH SmGAPN; PDB code 2EUH. A Analyses of the flg22-induced ROS burst in Col-0 and GAPDH KO lines.

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Cloning and Sequencing of the Gapdh Gene

gapdh gene in plants

The correct holding of the adenine moiety of bound NAD + is also determined by the conformation of Phe-37 side chain conserved in glycolytic GAPDHs from higher plants and animals, but not in prokaryotes, Figure + to the coenzyme binding site FIGURE 2. Multifaceted roles of glycolytic enzymes. Crystal structure of cytoplasmic GAPDH from rice. Drop-dilution assays of the different transformants on plates containing H 2O 2 demonstrated that the zwf1 deletion carrying an empty vector was highly sensitive Fig. Experiment was repeated a minimum of 3 times with similar results. In accordance, reduced GapC showed an increased affinity to the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion-selective channel VDAC compared to the oxidized one.

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Frontiers

gapdh gene in plants

Equal amounts of first-strand cDNAs were used as templates for RT-PCR amplification using the primers listed in supplemental gapa1-2 lines and 35 cycles for gapCp lines. BLAST results also yield the most likely consensus sequence through use of the CAP3 Sequence Assembly Program. The seedlings were grown under 4 or 40┬░C for 24h to simulate cold and heat treatments, respectively; and immersed in 250mM NaCl or 20% PEG8000 solutions for 24h as salt and drought treatments, respectively. Several structures of GAPDH isoforms from animal, microbial and plant sources are available Table Oryza sativa; OsGAPC is the only known crystal structure of a glycolytic GAPDH from a photosynthetic organism PDB code 3E5R, A. In the glycolytic direction, the binding of the substrate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate G3P to the holo-enzyme containing NAD + 1 leads to the formation of a hemithioacetal intermediate 2. DNA sequencing is a method used to determine the ordering in which the deoxynucleotide base-pairs are assembled in our targeted gene sequence.

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GAPDH PCR Module

gapdh gene in plants

Chromosomes 2A, 2B, 4B and 4D contained one GAPDH, respectively. The GAPC1 isoform exhibits diverse sub-cellular localizations and dynamically responds to perception of bacterial flagellin. KO lines exhibited accelerated programmed cell death and increased electrolyte leakage in response to effector triggered immunity. Indeed GAPC interacts with the replicase complex of different phytopathogenic viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. A Diagram of GAPA1 illustrating locations of two independent T-DNA insertion sites. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. The cellular localizations and interactions found under reducing and under oxidizing conditions might help to unravel the various functions of GapC in more detail.

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Is GAPDH a good reference sequence?

gapdh gene in plants

All GAPDH KOs exhibit reduced bacterial growth. Expression values are shown relative to wild-type Col-0. The flow through was then stores at -20┬░C for later use. Lane 3: pGAP pos. This latter site hosts also the intermediates formed during the catalytic cycle via covalent modification of the active site cysteine.


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