# Fixed factor economics. What is fixed factor and variable factor? 2022-10-17

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Fixed factor economics refers to the idea that certain inputs or factors of production in an economic system are fixed or unable to be changed in the short term. These fixed factors can include land, capital, and certain types of labor, such as skilled or specialized workers. In contrast, other inputs, such as raw materials or labor that can be easily hired or fired, are known as variable factors.

One important concept in fixed factor economics is the law of diminishing returns, which states that as more units of a variable factor are added to a fixed factor, the marginal output of the production process will eventually decrease. This occurs because the fixed factor becomes increasingly strained as more and more units of the variable factor are added, leading to a reduction in overall efficiency.

One way that firms can mitigate the negative effects of diminishing returns is by introducing new technologies or making other improvements to the production process. For example, a factory may invest in new machinery or adopt more efficient processes in order to increase output and reduce the strain on fixed factors.

Another important concept in fixed factor economics is the concept of opportunity cost, which refers to the cost of not using a resource in its next best alternative use. For example, if a farmer decides to plant a particular type of crop on a piece of land, they are choosing to forgo the opportunity to use that land for any other purpose, such as raising livestock or building a house. The opportunity cost of using the land for one purpose is the value of the next best alternative use.

In conclusion, fixed factor economics is a crucial field that deals with the ways in which firms can most effectively use their available resources in order to produce goods and services. By understanding the concepts of diminishing returns and opportunity cost, firms can make informed decisions about how to allocate their resources and maximize their output.

## Specifying Fixed and Random Factors in Mixed Models

TP is total product curve. Thus, law of increasing returns operates in industries for a long period. Law of Variable Proportions occupies an important place in economic theory. You would like to generalize the conclusions about this factor to the whole population. Production is the result of the co-operation of all factors.

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## Fixed and Variable Factors

Biological and acquired quality differences among people are the major reasons why there are so many different wage rates even within the same occupation; the marginal productivities of workers differ. The total product in the economy is equal to the product of all n firms: Assume that a new firm is added to the economy, having a plot of land identical to the land of the already existing firms, but not workers. All rents are costs for individual producers. It is not possible in the short-run. Quentin Grafton et al. Land is a fixed factor whereas labour is a variable factor. The two markets are shown in figures 21.

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## Fixed Factors and Variable Factors Homework Help in Microeconomics

It has also examined by the data the total product also tends to increases but at a decreasing rate. ADVERTISEMENTS: Let us discuss three topics related to factor payments. A factor may be fixed because: 1 the input might take a long time to build or replace; 2 it has few substitutes and is required in fixed proportion to other inputs; or 3 more cannot be purchased because its supply is fixed in the short run. An example of entrepreneurship is the evolution of the social media behemoth Meta The continued popularity of the product meant that Zuckerberg also had to scale technology and operations. The business firm is basically termed as a technical unit where the inputs are converted into outputs and then into a sale. Diminishing marginal returns forms part of a larger principle, called the principle of variable proportions. Variable Factors Variable factors are those factor inputs which change with the change with the change of output in the short run.

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## Short Run

In the lower part of the figure MP is marginal product curve. Raw materials, ordinary labour, power, fuel, etc. In the long-run all factors are variable. They are independent of output in the short-run. Here, total product increases at a diminishing rate. This states that, assuming one factor is fixed, the marginal returns generated from adding new variable factors will not be constant.

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## Production

An example of this would be a lease on a building, where the firm is legally obligated to purchase a certain amount of space over the period under examination. SEE ALSO Rent; Returns; Returns to Scale; Returns to Scale, Asymmetric; Returns, Diminishing; Returns, Increasing Grafton, R. Stage I is characterized by increasing AP, so that the total product must also be increasing. Product curves It can be observed that, at first, the marginal returns curve increases and then decreases. Variables are anything that can be used to change the behavior of a machine or program. Thereafter, it begins to diminish corresponding to negative marginal product.

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## The Effects of Fixed Factors of Production in Optimal Growth Models

However, in Stage III, he incurs higher costs and also gets lesser revenue thereby getting reduced profits. By providing a factor that has few substitutes in many production processes and is also, more or less, globally fixed in supply in the short run, petroleum suppliers receive a windfall gain. Production will not take place in either of the other two stages. Fixed and Variable Inputs So, what about the fixed input? However, money is not a factor of production because it is not directly involved in producing a good or service. This payment can be split in two parts the opportunity cost of the factor, that is the amount that must be paid to the factor to keep 0L units in their current use, and the rent of the factor, that is any payment in excess of the opportunity cost. A whole market can also be considered in terms of the short and long run.

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## What are the Fixed Factors and Variable Factors of Production?

In other words as a firm increases or decreases its output in the short-run, fixed factors remain constant. Total Product Total product may be defined as the amount of aggregate output produced per unit of time by all factor inputs. Main stages of the formation of an economic cluster. Fixed factors of production are those that remain constant regardless of the conditions of production, such as land, materials, labor power and machines. We grow wheat on it with the help of variable factor i. Also, if we keep other factors constant and increase the units of the variable factor, then the TPP initially increases at an increasing rate, then at a diminishing rate, and finally declines. In the long run, it is possible for a firm to branch out into new products or new areas or to modernise or reorganise its method of production through invention of new techniques.

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## Unit 3 Micro: Fixed and Variable Costs

Continue reading here: Was this article helpful? What is the difference between fixed and variable inputs of production? Its quantity remains the same, whether the level of output is more or less or zero. Fixed Factors of Production. Therefore, producers prefer Stage II â€” the stage of diminishing returns. How is this pattern explained? Labour unions and professional bodies resist such equalisation movements. Marginal costs relate only to variable costs! It should be clear from the above discussion that any factor whose supply is less than perfectly elastic earns an economic rent. Imperfect knowledge of job opportunities may keep wages high in some regions. Graphic Presentation : In fig.

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## Returns to A Fixed Factor

With fall approaching, Company ABC is preparing for a surge in demand for pumpkins and baked goods. The researcher wants to measure differences in how much damage the two varieties sustain. When an additional unit of a variable factor has to produce with the help of relatively fixed factor, then the marginal return of variable factor begins to decline. In the short-run, total product increases with the increase of variable factors like labour and raw materials. Thus, in the short-run, some factors are fixed, while the others are variable. The distinction between fixed and variable factors helps us to study the law of variable proportions and the law of returns of scale. However, if you want to compare or control for these particular farms, then Farm is a fixed factor.

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## Fixed and Variable Factors

If a firm wants to expand output in the short-run, then it can employ more labourers, purchase more raw materials and can use more power. This law applies to any field of production where some factors are fixed and others are variable. Similarly, if a factor is fixed because of inflexibilities in the production process, then any price increase imposes a greater cost burden than if the short-run use of the input could be varied. The foremost cause of the operation of this law is that some of the factors of production are fixed during the short period. The firm maximises its profit, producing OX units of output, from which it receives a total revenue TR equal to the area OPeX. One factor cannot be used in place of the other factor. However, as business continued to grow, Meta built its own office space and data centers.

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